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If no one minds, I'd like to create and maintain this thread to compile articles, book excerpts, studies, quotes, etc. on orthomolecular approaches to treating/managing and reversing neuro-psychiatric illnesses, HPPD being one (if it's a problem, no worries, it can be deleted or whatever). When I first started getting HPPD symptoms (which were much less severe than now), I started looking into things like organic foods (I definitely recommend the documentary Genetic Roulette, as well as the book Seeds of Deception, for more information), followed by alternative and naturopathic medicine. Nowadays, I'm open to anything, including the traditional, Western allopathic model to medicine. Nonetheless, personally, I believe the orthomolecular approach holds the greatest promise as it is (1) science based (unlike some other models), and (2) contains potentially hundreds of thousands of cases of people being cured of their ailments, which, interestingly include ailments such as psychosis and Schizophrenia. To begin this, I'd like to share some excerpts from an article on the thyroid (hormone)/oxidative metabolism-"insanity" connection written by Dr. Ray Peat; though I'm a fan of Dr. Peat, there are many others that have fantastic information, such as (but not limited to): Dr. Abram Hoffer, Dr. Albert Szent-Gyorgi, Dr. Linus Pauling, and Dr. Roger J. Williams. Thyroid, insomnia, and the insanities: Commonalities in disease SOME FACTORS IN STRESS, INSOMNIA AND THE BRAIN SYNDROMES: "Everyone is familiar with the problem of defining insanity, in the case of people who plead innocent by reason of insanity. The official definition of insanity in criminal law is “the inability to tell right from wrong.” Obviously, that can’t be generalized to everyday life, because any sane person realizes that certainty is impossible, and that most situations, including elections, offer you at best the choice of “the lesser of two evils,” or the opportunity to “do the right thing,” and to “throw your vote away.” People who persist in doing what they know is really right are “eccentric,” in the sense that they don’t adapt to society’s norms. In a society that chooses to destroy ecosystems, rather than adapting to them, the question of sanity should be an everyday political issue." "Looking for general physiological problems behind the various symptoms is very different from the practice of classifying the insanities according to their symptoms and the hypothetical “brain chemicals” that are believed to “cause the symptoms.” The fact that some patients hallucinate caused many psychiatrists to believe that hallucinogenic chemicals, interfering with nerve transmitter substances such as dopamine or serotonin, were going to provide insight into psychotic states. The dopamine excess (or serotonin deficiency) theories developed at a time when only a few “transmitter substances” were known, and when they were thought to act as very specific on/off nerve switches, rather than as links in metabolic networks. The drug industry helps to keep those ideas alive." "A particular drug has many effects other than those that are commonly recognized as its “mechanism of action,” but when an “antidepressant” or a “tranquilizer” or a “serotonin reuptake inhibitor” alleviates a particular condition, some people argue that the condition must have been caused by the “specific chemistry” that the drug is thought to affect. Because of the computer metaphor for the brain, these effects are commonly thought to be primarily in the synapses, the membranes, and the transmitter chemicals." "The brain, just like any organ or tissue, is an energy-producing metabolic system, and its oxidative metabolism is extremely intense, and it is more dependent on oxygen for continuous normal functioning than any other organ. Without oxygen, its characteristic functioning (consciousness) stops instantly (when blood flow stops, blindness begins in about three seconds, and other responses stop after a few more seconds). The concentration of ATP, which is called the cellular energy molecule, doesn’t decrease immediately. Nothing detectable happens to the “neurotransmitters, synapses, or membrane structures” in this short period; consciousness is a metabolic process that, in the computer metaphor, would be the flow of electrons itself, under the influence of an electromotive force, a complex but continuous sort of electromagnetic field. The computer metaphor would seem to have little to offer for understanding the brain." "Although it is common to speak of sleep and hibernation as variations on the theme of economizing on energy expenditure, I suspect that nocturnal sleep has the special function of minimizing the stress of darkness itself, and that it has subsidiary functions, including its now well confirmed role in the consolidation and organization of memory. This view of sleep is consistent with observations that disturbed sleep is associated with obesity, and that the torpor-hibernation chemical, serotonin, powerfully interferes with learning. Babies spend most of their time sleeping, and during life the amount of time spent sleeping decreases, with nightly sleeping time decreasing by about half an hour per decade after middle age. Babies have an extremely high metabolic rate and a stable temperature. With age the metabolic rate progressively declines, and as a result the ability to maintain an adequate body temperature tends to decrease with aging. (The simple fact that body temperature regulates all organic functions, including brain waves, is habitually overlooked. The actions of a drug on brain waves, for example, may be mediated by its effects on body temperature, but this wouldn’t be very interesting to pharmacologists looking for “transmitter-specific” drugs.) Torpor is the opposite of restful sleep, and with aging, depression, hypothyroidism, and a variety of brain syndromes, sleep tends toward the hypothermic torpor. An individual cell behaves analogously to the whole person. A baby’s “high energy resting state” is paralleled by the stable condition of a cell that is abundantly charged with energy; ATP and carbon dioxide are at high levels in these cells. Progesterone’s effects on nerve cells include favoring the high energy resting state, and this is closely involved in progesterone’s “thermogenic” effect, in which it raises the temperature set-point. The basal metabolic rate, which is mainly governed by thyroid, roughly corresponds to the average body temperature. However, in hypothyroidism, there is an adaptive increase in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, producing more adrenalin, which helps to maintain body temperature by causing vasoconstriction in the skin. In aging, menopause, and various stressful conditions, the increased adrenalin (and the increased cortisol production which is produced by excess adrenalin) causes a tendency to wake more easily, and to have less restful sleep. While the early morning body temperature will sometimes be low in hypothyroidism, I have found many exceptions to this. In protein deficiency, sodium deficiency, in menopause with flushing symptoms, and in both phases of the manic depression cycle, and in some schizophrenics, the morning temperature is high, corresponding to very high levels of adrenalin and cortisol. Taking the temperature before and after breakfast will show a reduction of temperature, the opposite of what occurs in simple hypothyroidism, because raising the blood sugar permits the adrenalin and cortisol to fall." "Therapies that have been successful in treating “schizophrenia” include penicillin, sleep therapy, hyperbaric oxygen, carbon dioxide therapy, thyroid, acetazolamide, lithium and vitamins. These all make fundamental contributions to the restoration of biological energy. Antibiotics, for example, lower endotoxin formation in the intestine, protect against the induction by endotoxin of serotonin, histamine, estrogen, and cortisol. Acetazolamide causes the tissues to retain carbon dioxide, and increased carbon dioxide acidifies cells, preventing serotonin secretion."